According to Islamic belief, the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) over a period of approximately 23 years, starting in 610 CE, when he was 40 years old, and ending in 632 CE, the year of his passing. The revelations came to him through the Angel Gabriel (Jibril in Arabic) from Allah (God).
Surah At-Tin is the 95th chapter revealed to the Prophet Muhammad and is considered to be a Makki Surah, meaning it was revealed during the early years of his prophethood while he was still in Mecca. Makki Surahs typically focus on matters of faith, morality, and the oneness of God.
The historical context of Surah At-Tin is linked to the broader context of the early Islamic period, where Prophet Muhammad faced significant challenges in spreading the message of Islam. Mecca was a city with deeply entrenched polytheistic beliefs, and the Prophet’s monotheistic message was met with resistance from the Quraysh, the dominant tribe of Mecca.
During this time, the revelations in the Quran aimed to establish the oneness of God (Tawheed), call people to worship the one true God, and urge them to follow the path of righteousness. Surah At-Tin, with its powerful oath and reminders of God’s creations and the potential of humankind, was one such revelation that emphasized the importance of faith, virtue, and accountability.
The chapter’s reference to the fig and olive trees and the significance of a righteous land are thought to be symbolic and carry deep spiritual meanings. The fig and olive trees were seen as blessed fruits, and the reference to a righteous land could represent the holy city of Mecca or symbolize the blessed state of human beings when they are guided by faith and good deeds.
Overall, Surah At-Tin, like all chapters of the Quran, holds profound spiritual and moral teachings and played a vital role in shaping the early Islamic community and guiding the Muslims in their faith and actions. It continues to be recited, studied, and revered by millions of Muslims worldwide to this day.
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
Bismillah hir rahman nir raheem
In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
Wat teeni waz zaitoon
By the fig and the olive
Wa toori sineen
And [by] Mount Sinai
وَهَٰذَا ٱلۡبَلَدِ ٱلۡأَمِينِ
Wa haazal balad-il ameen
And [by] this secure city [Makkah],
لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَٰنَ فِيٓ أَحۡسَنِ تَقۡوِيمٖ
Laqad khalaqnal insaana fee ahsani taqweem
We have certainly created man in the best of stature;
ثُمَّ رَدَدۡنَٰهُ أَسۡفَلَ سَٰفِلِينَ
Thumma ra dad naahu asfala saafileen
Then We return him to the lowest of the low,
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ فَلَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونٖ
Ill-lal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati; falahum ajrun ghairu mamnoon
Except for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for they will have a reward uninterrupted.
فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعۡدُ بِٱلدِّينِ
Fama yu kaz zibuka b’adu bid deen
So what yet causes you to deny the Recompense?
أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَحۡكَمِ ٱلۡحَٰكِمِينَ
Alai sal laahu bi-ahkamil haakimeen
Is not Allah the most just of judges?